TDAP

Tdap vaccine can prevent tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis.

Diphtheria and pertussis spread from person to person. Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds.

  • TETANUS (T) causes painful straining of the muscles. Tetanus can lead to serious health problems, including being unable to open the mouth, having trouble swallowing and breathing, or death.
  • DIPHTHERIA (D) can lead to di culty breathing, heart failure, paralysis, or death.
  • PERTUSSIS (aP), also known as “whooping cough,” can cause uncontrollable, violent coughing which makes it hard to breathe, eat, or drink. Pertussis can be extremely serious in babies and young children, causing pneumonia, convulsions, brain damage, or death. In teens and adults, it can cause weight loss, loss of bladder control, passing out, and rib fractures from severe coughing.

Adults who have never received Tdap should get a dose of Tdap.

Also, adults should receive a booster dose every 10 years, or earlier in the case of a severe and dirty wound or burn. Booster doses can be either Tdap or Td (a di erent vaccine that protects against tetanus and diphtheria but not pertussis).

Tdap may be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine:

  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of any vaccine that protects against tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis, or has any severe, life- threatening allergies.
  • Has had a coma, decreased level of consciousness, or prolonged seizures within 7 days a er a previous dose of any pertussis vaccine (DTP, DTaP, or Tdap).
  • Has seizures or another nervous system problem. ‚Has ever had Guillain-Barré Syndrome (also called GBS).
  • Has had severe pain or swelling after a previousdose of any vaccine that protects against tetanus or diphtheria.

In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone Tdap vaccination to a future visit.

People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting Tdap vaccine.

Your health care provider can give you more information.


Pneumococcal Vaccine

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease.

Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness caused by pneumococcal bacteria. ese bacteria can cause many types of illnesses, including pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs. Pneumococcal bacteria are one of the most common causes of pneumonia.

Most people need only one dose of PPSV23. A second dose of PPSV23, and another type of pneu- mococcal vaccine called PCV13, are recommended for certain high-risk groups. Your health care provider can give you more information.

People 65 years or older should get a dose of PPSV23 even if they have already gotten one or more doses of the vaccine before they turned 65.

Besides pneumonia, pneumococcal bacteria can also cause:

  • Ear infections
  • Sinus infections
  • Meningitis (infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord)
  • Bacteremia (bloodstream infection)

Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but children under 2 years of age, people with certain medical conditions, adults 65 years or older, and cigarette smokers are at the highest risk.

Most pneumococcal infections are mild. However, some can result in long-term problems, such as brain damage or hearing loss. Meningitis, bacteremia, and pneumonia caused by pneumococcal disease can be fatal. PPSV23 protects against 23 types of bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease.

PPSV23 is recommended for:

  • All adults 65 years or older
  • Anyone 2 years or older with certain medical conditions that can lead to an increased risk for pneumococcal disease.

Most people need only one dose of PPSV23. A second dose of PPSV23, and another type of pneu- mococcal vaccine called PCV13, are recommended for certain high-risk groups. Your health care provider can give you more information.

People 65 years or older should get a dose of PPSV23 even if they have already gotten one or more doses of the vaccine before they turned 65.

Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine:

  • Has had an allergic reaction a er a previous dose of PPSV23, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies.In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone PPSV23 vaccination to a future visit.

People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting PPSV23.

Your health care provider can give you more information.


Meningococcal B Vaccine

Meningococcal B vaccine can help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B. A di erent meningococcal vaccine is available that can help protect against serogroups A, C, W, and Y.

Meningococcal disease can cause meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and infections of the blood. Even when it is treated, meningococcal disease kills 10 to 15 infected people out of 100. And of those who survive, about 10 to 20 out of every 100 will su er disabilities such as hearing loss, brain damage, kidney damage, loss of limbs, nervous system problems, or severe scars from skin grafts.

Anyone can get meningococcal disease but certain people are at increased risk, including:

  • Infants younger than one year old
  • Adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years old
  • People with certain medical conditions that affect the immune system
  • Microbiologists who routinely work with isolates of N. meningitidis, the bacteria that cause meningococcal disease
  • People at risk because of an outbreak in their community

For best protection, more than 1 dose of a meningococcal B vaccine is needed. ere are two meningococcal B vaccines available. The same vaccine must be used for all doses.

Meningococcal B vaccines are recommended for people 10 years or older who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease, including:

  • People at risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak
  • Anyone whose spleen is damaged or has been removed, including people with sickle cell disease
  • Anyone with a rare immune system condition called “persistent complement component de ciency”
  • Anyone taking a type of drug called a complement inhibitor, such as eculizumab (also called Soliris®) or ravulizumab (also called Ultomiris®)
  • Microbiologists who routinely work with isolates of N. meningitidis

These vaccines may also be given to anyone 16 through 23 years old to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease; 16 through 18 years are the preferred ages for vaccination.

Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine:

  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of meningococcal B vaccine, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies.
  • Is pregnant or breastfeeding.

In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone meningococcal B vaccination to a future visit.

People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting meningococcal B vaccine.

Your health care provider can give you more information.


Hepatitis B Vaccine

Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause mild illness lasting a few weeks, or it can lead to a serious, lifelong illness.

Acute hepatitis B infection is a short-term illness that can lead to fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice (yellow skin or eyes, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements), and pain in the muscles, joints, and stomach.

Chronic hepatitis B infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Most people who go on to develop chronic hepatitis B do not have symptoms, but it is still very serious and can lead to liver damage (cirrhosis), liver cancer, and death. Chronically-infected people can spread hepatitis B virus to others, even if they do not feel or look sick themselves.

Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body uid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. People can become infected through:

  • Birth (if a mother has hepatitis B, her baby can become infected)
  • Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
  • Contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • Sex with an infected partner
  • Sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
  • Exposure to blood from needlesticks or other sharp instruments

Most people who are vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine are immune for life.

Hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for certain unvaccinated adults:

  • People whose sex partners have hepatitis B
  • Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term monogamous relationship
  • Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
  • Men who have sexual contact with other men
  • People who share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
  • People who have household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus
  • Health care and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body uids
  • Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons
  • Persons in correctional facilities
  • Victims of sexual assault or abuse
  • Travelers to regions with increased rates of hepatitis B
  • People with chronic liver disease, kidney disease, HIV infection, infection with hepatitis C, or
  • Diabetes
  • Anyone who wants to be protected from hepatitis B

Hepatitis B vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.


Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from person to person through contact with the feces (stool) of people who are infected, which can easily happen if someone does not wash his or her hands properly. You can also get hepatitis A from food, water, or objects contaminated with HAV.

Symptoms of hepatitis A can include:

  • Fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and/or joint pain
  • Severe stomach pains and diarrhea (mainly in children), or
  • Jaundice (yellow skin or eyes, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements).

These symptoms usually appear 2 to 6 weeks after exposure and usually last less than 2 months, although some people can be ill for as long as 6 months. If you have hepatitis A you may be too ill to work.

Children often do not have symptoms, but most adults do. You can spread HAV without having symptoms.

Hepatitis A can cause liver failure and death, although this is rare and occurs more commonly in persons 50 years of age or older and persons with other liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or C. Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A. Hepatitis A vaccines were recommended in the United States beginning in 1996. Since then, the number of cases reported each year in the U.S. has dropped from around 31,000 cases to fewer than 1,500 cases.

Hepatitis A vaccine is an inactivated (killed) vaccine. You will need 2 doses for long-lasting protection. These doses should be given at least 6 months apart.

Children are routinely vaccinated between their rst and second birthdays (12 through 23 months of age). Older children and adolescents can get the vaccine after 23 months. Adults who have not been vaccinated previously and want to be protected against hepatitis A can also get the vaccine.

You should get hepatitis A vaccine if you:

  • are traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common, • are a man who has sex with other men,
  • use illegal drugs,
  • have a chronic liver disease such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C,
  • are being treated with clotting-factor concentrates,
  • work with hepatitis A-infected animals or in a hepatitis A research laboratory, or
  • expect to have close personal contact with an international adoptee from a country where hepatitis A is common

Ask your healthcare provider if you want more information about any of these groups.

There are no known risks to getting hepatitis A vaccine at the same time as other vaccines.

Tell the person who is giving you the vaccine:

  • If you have any severe, life-threatening allergies.

If you ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of hepatitis A vaccine, or have a severe allergy to any part of this vaccine, you may be advised not to get vaccinated. Ask your health care provider if you want information about vaccine components.

  • If you are not feeling well.

If you have a mild illness, such as a cold, you can probably get the vaccine today. If you are moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until you recover. Your doctor can advise you.